”Elie Wiesel” Institute`s Journal:
Holocaust. Studii şi cercetări, vol. X, issue 1(11), 2018
Title: Holocaust. Studii şi cercetări, vol. IX, no. 1(11)/ 2018
Price: 17 lei
List of Authors
Adina Babeş is a senior researcher at the ”Elie Wiesel” National Institute for the Study of Holocaust in Romania, and she holds a PhD in Political Sciences from National School of Political Studies and Public Administration of Bucharest. She is presently working on European Holocaust Research Infrastructure with Horizon 2020-EU funds. Adina Babeş has authored several articles and research studies published in volumes and academic journals and presented scientific papers during conferences, seminars and round tables. Since October 2018 she joined Belgian State Archives/CegeSoma/EHRI project. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Ana Bărbulescu, PhD in sociology, is a researcher at the INSHR- EW, and an associate professor at the University of Bucharest, Faculty of Foreign Languages and Literatures, Department of Jewish Studies. She has published numerous studies in the fields of antisemitism, nationalism, xenophobia, negationism. She is the author of Evreul înainte si după Cristos (Curtea Veche Publishing, 2016) and co-editor, together with Alexandru Florian, of Munca forţată a evreilor din România (Polirom, 2013). E-mail: email@example.com
Marius Cazan is a researcher at the “Elie Wiesel” National Institute for the Study of the Holocaust in Romania. He has received a BA from the University of Bucharest, Department of History in 2009 and an MA from the same institution in 2011. His research areas of interest are the Holocaust in Romania, Romanian communism, urban history, the history of Romanian higher education, the history of everyday life during communism. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Nicolae Drăguşin, holder of a PhD in Philosophy (2013, Romanian Academy). MA in Human Rights and Democratization (2008, University Ca’Foscari of Venice and University of Uppsala). BA in Political Science (2008, University of Bucharest) and Law (2017, University Nicolae Titulescu of Bucharest). Postdoctoral Fellowship (University of Bucharest). Assistant and Lecturer at the Christian University Dimitrie Cantemir of Bucharest – Communication and Public Relations Department (2010 – present). Researcher at the „Elie Wiesel” National Institute for the Study of the Holocaust in Romania (2017 – present). E-mail: email@example.com
Petre Matei is a historian and researcher at the “Elie Wiesel” National Institute for the Study of the Holocaust in Romania. He obtained his PhD in History at the University of Bucharest with a thesis on the 20th century history of the Roma in Romania, and received a Tziporah Wiesel Fellowship at the Center for Advanced Holocaust Studies of the USHMM (2012) with a project on the role of the police in the deportation of Roma to Transnistria. Since 2014 he has coordinated the project “Roma Survivors of the Deportations to Transnistria”, and has conducted numerous interviews with Roma survivors. E mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Katalin Eszter Morgan studied Sociology and Education in Johannesburg, South Africa, focusing on Social Science, History and Technology. Her PhD thesis, completed in 2011, examined the representation of Nazism and the Holocaust in South African high school history textbooks. In 2015 she relocated to Germany, her former childhood home, to pursue an Alexander von Humboldt-funded post-doctoral study on the use of a digital medium on the topic of National Socialism in German schools. Her other research interests include antisemitism, inherited or generational guilt and trauma, learning technology and media design, philosophy of history and education, and theories of memory. E-mail: email@example.com
Andrei Muraru is Associate Professor at the National University of Political Studies and Public Administration – Bucharest. Andrei Muraru holds a PhD in History (2011) from the University “Alexandru Ioan Cuza” in Iaşi. He was Doctoral Fellow at New Europe College and the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. He is the author of the book Visinescu, the Forgotten Torturer: the Prison, the Crimes, the Trial (Polirom, 2018) and coordinated, together with others authors, volumes about Romanian recent history such as The King, the Communists and the Crown: The True History of Michael I’s Abdication (Polirom, 2018) and The Dictionary of the Romanian Communist Prisons, 1945-1967 (Polirom, 2008). E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Levente Olosz is currently enrolled at the Eszterhazy Karoly University, where he is pursuing a PhD degree in Contemporary History. He received BA and MA degree in History and International Relations at the Faculty of History and Philosophy of the Babeş-Bolyai University. He also holds an MA degree in the field of Jewish Studies from the Central European University, Budapest. He has published numerous studies in the fields of antisemitism, post-Second World War Jewish history and Zionism, concentrated on Transylvania. His most important articles entitled: Impeachment for the sins of the Holocaust in Northern Transylvania and The position of the Hungarian speaking Jews in Israeli society.
Maria Ch. Sidiropoulou (1990) has obtained a doctoral degree in Sociology of Religion [Dissertation title: The Greek Jews in Postwar Greece: The Routes of an Identity (Grade: Unanimously Excellent)], in the Department of Ethics and Sociology and she is a Research Associate at the Social Research Centre for Religion and Culture, in A.U.TH. (Greece). Her main publications include, indicatively: Negotiating a Diasporic Identity: The Jews in Thessaloniki, Social Studies, 9/3 (2015), pp. 25-34 / Negotiating Female Identity in the Jewish Community of Thessaloniki: Between Tradition and Modernity, European Society of Women in Theological Research, 24 (2016), pp. 189-201. E-mail: email@example.com / firstname.lastname@example.org.
In Romania, Roma deportation had many local specificities and cannot be reduced to a single cause or discourse. These particularities could remain incomprehensible due to the researchers’ tendency to focus almost exclusively on the elites. This obstructs the understanding of a more complex interplay between different actors who contributed to the deportation of the Roma. It is important to bring into discussion the bottom-up perspective of Police as an agency, because: 1) it criminalized the Roma over a long period of time; 2) in 1942, when charged with identifying and deporting the „problem-Gypsies”, Police had a considerable leeway in labelling those who were to be deported. What I intend to do is to analyse how the law enforcement agencies perceived the Roma. Then, against this backdrop, I will compare these interwar perceptions and proposed measures to the measures taken by Antonescu’s regime during WWII, without neglecting the local initiatives.
Keywords: law enforcement agencies, policing, control, labelling, deportations, genocide, Romania, Transnistria.
Our study aims to review the involvement of the far-right Legionary Movement from workers’ centers in Bucharest, in the pogrom of January 21 to 23, 1941, by using archive materials. The increase in size of the Legionary Workers’ Corps (Corpul Muncitoresc Legionar – CML), enjoyed by the Legion from within the workers’ masses in Bucharest, during the months they govemed the country, meant that, in the confrontation with the army, which was faithful to Antonescu, Legionary workers were a major part of the rebel forces. Also, the perpetrators of looting and murders that took place during the pogrom that doubled the Rebellion, belonged to the Legionary organizations. The article analyzes the involvement, in the events of January 1941, of legionaries who worked at the Bucharest Tramway Company (Societatea de Tramvaie Bucureşti – STB.), the General Gas and Power Company (Societatea Generală de Gaz şi Electricitate – SGGE), the Communal Plants of Bucharest (Uzinele Comunale Bucureşti – UCB), the “Distribution” (“Distribuţia”) Company for the distribution of oil products in Bucharest and the “Dumitru Voina” metallurgical enterprise. Although these were far from being the only centers that had strong Legionary organizations, whose members participated in the Rebellion, their scrutiny can show the organizational dynamics and workers’ involvement strategy used by the Legionary Movement during the time of the National Legionary State, during the Rebellion and the Bucharest pogrom.
Keywords: Legionary rebellion, Bucharest pogrom, Legionary Workers Corps, legionary violence.
During the communist period, the history of the Romanian occupation of Transnistria has been falsified, perverted and distorted. At the same time, in the historiography of Romanian Holocaust, the topic of punishing war crimes has been neglected for a long time. With minor exceptions, even after 1989, the subject did not benefitted from a professional perspective because of the lack of sources and also because of the disputes over the traumatic memory from the period 19401989. The attempt to rehabilitate some important figures of war criminals revealed the contradiction between the competitive martyrology and the professional manner in which history should be written. Over the last decades, in the Western historiography the concept of “political trial” received various interpretations. The organization of the trials of war criminals by totalitarian states or by states where dictatorial regimes were about to come to power gave birth to the idea that a “surgical” approach to each judiciary action could offer a balanced way for approaching the topic. The special courts in Romania – People’s Tribunals – created in 1945, functioned in a complicated context and the collective trials organised under their patronage were accompanied by multiple controversies. Given the fact that Romania administered Transnistria, the special tribunals had to deal with the crimes and atrocities committed, during Romanian occupation, against Romanian deported Jews, Ukrainian Jews and Roma. In the three trials that took place between May and July 1945 and which are being analysed in this article, I tried to thoroughly investigate the manner in which the tribunal administered justice. I tried to examine the trials in detail referring to the way in which judicial actors played their role before the court in order to find the truth about de crimes and abuses committed in the districts of Odessa, Golta, Berezovka, Râbnita, Oceakov, Jugastru. In the end, the goal was to offer a broad picture about Romania and its political justice in the postwar period.
Keywords: Holocaust, Transnistria, Romania, Ion Antonescu, Jews, political trials, war criminals, People’s Tribunal, communism, USSR, Odessa, Golta, Berezovka, Dumanovka, Vapniarka, Balta, Mostovoi, Râbnita.
After the Holocaust there was a desire for reconciliation by the leaders of the Hungarian and the Jewish minorities in Transylvania. In my paper I will examine the collaboration between the two main organizations and their attitude toward each other. Furthermore, I will show why the reconciliation did not work out well, although both organizations were determined for a successful outcome. My main questions are: Why the reconciliation was so important for the two minority’s elites and to what extent was it successful? And the second most important question: why the attempt happened to be failed although both political groups wished for success? I will argue that the two elites originally wanted the reconciliation to make peace between the two minorities for a number of pragmatic reasons and to satisfy the Communist Party request which stated that the ethnic groups in Romania must live peacefully along with each other in the framework of socialism. The reconciliation attempt had an unsuccessful result because they were not able to overcome those issues that they wanted to resolve.
Keywords: Antisemitism, reconciliation, Transylvania, communism.
MARIA CH. SIDIROPOULOU
It is a fact, that the Holocaust of European Jews has marked in various ways the Jewish diaspora and the Jewish presence worldwide.
In the case of the Jews who live in Greece and especially in the city of Thessaloniki, though the Community delayed to break silence about this traumatic historic event, this fact was never let slip from memory. In the public sphere of action, the updating of Holocaust takes place through community actions at first hand and, later, through initiatives from local authorities, by making mnemonic and memorial donations.
For the past seventy-four years, Holocaust inheres as a memory in three post-war Jewish generations in Thessaloniki and seals diversely the identity of the social subjects. This mnemonic event in collaboration with the social and politic developments and turmoils, describes the identity of the Jewish element, both directly and indirectly. The presentation will be focused on qualitative empirical data of fieldwork, from a sociological analysis perspective. More specifically, in this paper it will be explored the way in which, the Holocaust of the Greek Jewry emphasizes on the individual and collective responsibilities and, at the same time, it’s function as a contemporary conservation mechanism of the Jewish identity, a cohesive bond of the Greek-Jewry in Thessaloniki.
Keywords: Greek-Jews, modernity, Holocaust, memory, identity.
KATALIN ESZTER MORGAN
Biographical work in the form of often emoţional memory is often set against the factuality of pure history in German scientific discourse. This applies also to how history is taught and learnt in schools. Nevertheless, one of the aims of history education is to consider the uses of historical information for personal or collective orientation in the present and the future. This essay examines qualitatively how some autobiographical video-interviews recorded at former concentration camp memorial site Neuengamme with descendants of Nazi perpetrators could contribute to such an aim. The focus is on the ability of biographies to provide information about how individual and collective talk and discourse about historical process is negotiated from present-day perspectives. What motivated the interviewees to uncover the deeds of their forefathers and what are the costs and benefits of doing so? What do they say about the victims? What emotional challenges do they face and what normative lessons can be learnt from them? Based on the qualitative content analysis, an argument is made for a radicalisation of what counts as (enlightened) knowledge.
Keywords: Nazi perpetrators, descendants, autobiography, memory, truth, knowledge, history education.
The present study aims to reconfigure the symbolic borders Nae Ionescu constructs in order to define Romanianness – What cluster of symbols are declared relevant in order to create the community of belonging? On a second approach, putting the emphasis on the correlative nature of the social world, I will be interested to identify how this symbolic construction conditions the political solution he sustains – How is the individual integrated within the state? What is the relation between citizenship and national community? Finally, as constructing identity means both including what is perceived as similar and excluding what is defined as different, a third emphasis will be put on the antisemitic discourse Ionescu develops and its consonance with the essentialist view he proposes.
Keywords: Nae Ionescu, interwar Romania, antisemitism, Orthodoxism.
This paper aims at exploring the way in which the official press of the Romanian Orthodox Church presented and discussed some aspects of the National Legionary State (14 September 1940 – 14 February 1941) such as war, Legionary Movement, Jewry (situation of Jews, attempts to address the Jewish Question). It argues that contrary to the tradition of relating to political power and to the important change that occurred on 5-6 September 1940, the official press of the Church remained silent. However, the official press through a series of articles and pastoral letters delivered by the Patriarch Nicodim is quite active in backing up the political ideology of the National Legionary State arguing in favor of ethnical homogeneity, a national Church, a superposition between religious faith and state citizenship. Hence, while completely silent about political events and reform initiatives promoted by the National Legionary State, the official press of the Romanian Orthodox Church uses a public discourse that resembles and sometimes coincides with the state ideology.
Keywords: Holocaust, Jews, Romanian Orthodox Church, Legionary Movement, official press.
The Council of Europe was established after the ravaging Second World War with the role of strengthening democracy, human rights, and the rule of law in its member states, and with the overarching aim of consolidating the democratic stability in Europe. The European Commission against Racism and Intolerance (ECRI) is one of Council of Europe’s ten monitoring bodies and the subject of this research and article. In the next pages I will focus on two of its activities: the General Policy Recommendations and the country reports. I will concentrate on how the forty-seven member states address ECRI’s – GPRs especially on issues like racism, xenophobia, antisemitism and intolerance. I will analyse this considering the latest country reports, following the fourth and the fifth monitoring cycles.
Keywords: Council of Europe, European Commission against Racism and Intolerance, General Policy Recommendations, country reports, Antisemitism.