Institutul Național pentru Studierea Holocaustului din România “Elie Wiesel”

Scientific report (third stage)

Scientific report (third stage) regarding the implementation of the project
 
„The Reconstruction of Holocaust Public Memory in Post-communism”-2015
 
Objective 4 – The intellectual elite’s discourse on the Holocaust
 
Implementing these objectives involved the identification of the most influential public intellectuals in Romania and the analysis of their positions and attitudes regarding the Holocaust which were publicly expressed through books, articles, interviews and public statements. The results of this research were disseminated by George Voicu in the study Post-communist Romania’s leading public intellectuals and the Holocaust (“Holocaust. Studii și cercetări”, no. 1 (8) / 2015).
 
The research highlighted the fact that within the post-communist intellectual debates, the Holocaust did not represent a distinct subject of research or reflection, but one which was derived from the debate about communism and the abuses of communist political regimes. As the George Voicu’s analysis show, this status is responsible for the simplification, distortion and ignorance of identity features pertaining to the Holocaust. 
 
The analysis of the intellectual elite’s discourse revealed two types of representations about the tragedy of Jews during the Second World War. The first and most frequent one weighs the crimes of communism and Holocaust according to an equalizing logic, leading to the conclusion that Holocaust and Gulag are identical. A second type of representations result from the attempts to establish a hierarchy between the two destructive phenomena in terms of gravity, these endeavors suggesting that the absolute evil is found in communism. 
 
According to the conclusions of this research, the Holocaust-Gulag comparative approach is responsible for a distorted representation about the two phenomena, because it is limited to revealing far-fetched correlations, symmetries or resemblances, ignoring the fundamental differences between the two totalitarian political regimes. The implications of the Holocaust localization in the heart of Europe, in contrast to the Gulag, the peripheral condition, in geographical terms, of the Holocaust in Romania, as well as the role of anti-Semitism in preparing and implementing the genocide against Jews are ignored by the intellectual elite.
 
Furthermore, the study highlights that the Holocaust-Gulag symmetrical approach acquired canonical value for preeminent public intellectuals. In this context, adopting an equalizing logic regarding the two historical phenomena represents a validation criteria for those wo want to be accepted by the most influential segment of the intellectual elite. 
 
Objective 7 – The role of the state and civil society in the construction of Holocaust public memory  
 
Through the implementation of this objective, the project aimed to analyze the efforts made by Romanian state institutions in the construction of an official Holocaust memory, as well as the responses of the civil society to the official practices of remembrance dedicated to this historical phenomenon.
 
The research activities carried out during this stage were focused on the state’s or civil society’s efforts to recollect the roles of persons who belonged to the generic category of perpetrators during different phases of the Romanian Holocaust. Hence, the team examined the attempts to acquit several war criminals, as well as the public promotion of symbols which propose a deliberate “forgetting” of the fascist past of historical figures and the reconsideration of these as models of civic and ethical conduct. 
 
The study prepared by Alexandru Climescu The Holocaust on Trial. Memory and Amnesia in the Case of Romanian War Criminals (Holocaust. Studii și Cecetări, no. 1 (8) / 2015, pp.) aimed to analyze the relation between law, history and memory starting from the post-communist trials of several war criminals. The research focused on five key moments the acquittal, in 1995, of most of the members of the “Journalists’ Group”, convicted in 1945 for war crimes; the attempt to acquit, in 1997, of eight members of the Antonescu Cabinet; the acquittal between 1998 and 1999 of officers Radu Dinulescu and Ghorghe Petrescu, initially convicted for organizing the deportations of Jews from Northern Bukovina; the acquitta in 2004 of Ion Pănescu, former commander of the Czernowitz airport, who coordinated a group of Jews subjected to the forced labor regime.  
 
The research proves that the acquittal of these war criminals was caused by several factors: the magistrates’ erroneous representations about political and legal responsibility for war crimes, distorted common knowledge avout the Holocaust, the selective and unilateral interpretation of evidence, as well as the strategic behavior of the General Prosecutor of Romania. The analysis of these cases also highlighted the fact that the interpretation of evidence found in the criminal files had a secondary role in the acquittal decisions, the magistrates resorting heavily to their own interpretation of history. Negationist discourses about the Pogrom in Iasi, inadequate knowledge about the legislation in force during the Holocaust, the failure to understand forced labor or deportations to Transnistria as anti-Semitic policies of the Antonescu regime, as well as the lack of any reference to anti-Semitism when the evaluation of the criminals’ actions was made bolstered the ethnocentric version of Holocaust memory and gave it the status of official memory.  
 
Furthermore, the research invalidated the hypothesis according to which, because of structural factors inherent to criminal trials, justice cannot reconstruct in a precise manner traumatic historical episodes. The study’s conclusions  indicate that the structural parameters of the trials had a secondary role in elaborating the acquittal decisions and that the failure of justice to adequately recollect the role of perpetrators during the Holocaust was caused bu the excessive recourse to a distorted Holocaust memory. The minimization or denial of the Holocaust during the communist regime, as well as the rehabilitation process of Ion Antonescu, accelerated during the first years of post-communist transitions, represented the framework in which the roles of war criminals were reconsidered by the judiciary. The results of this research were also presented under the title Representations of Romanian Holocaust Perpetrators: Historical vs. Judicial Truths, within the conference  “The Holocaust in Southeastern Europe”, organized by the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum and INSHR-EW (May 25-26, 2015, Bucharest). 
 
In the article From Ion Antonescu to the Saints of the Prisons. Extremist symbols in the public space (Sfera Politicii, no. 2 (184) / 2015, pp. 66-82), Alexandru Florian highlights the process through which discourses regarding the historical past of Romania replace ideological of legal values with cultural ones, resulting in the glorification of historical figures whose achievements in the field of science or culture are invoked in order to conceal or their complicity with the Antonescu regime. Furthermore, the article documents the case of Valeriu Gafencu, important member of the iron Guard, who is claimed to have had exemplary contributions from a nationalist, Christian, moral or political perspective, but which remain essentially anti-democratic.   Inedited archive documents regarding the activities of Valeriu Gafencu were invoked by Alexandru Florian to highlight the discrepancy between the historical reality and the memorial acts carried out by public authorities and INGOs, who made serious efforts to promote a heroic image about the one who is called “The Saint of the Prisons”. 
 
Implementing the current objective also involved the presentation of scientific papers with international conferences. Alexandru Florian’s presentation Roma's Tragedy in Transnistria and the Public Memory of the Holocaust in Post-communism (disseminated within the conference “Porajmos” / “Samudaripen” and Collective Memory in Twentieth-Century Southeastern Europe, „Lucian Blaga” University of Sibiu, Februariy 26-27, 2015) discussed the manner in which the memory of Roma victims of the Holocaust is represented in the Romanian public space. His work also focused on those “lieux de memoir” which recollect the tragedy of Romas during the Second World War, as well as the remembering practices of the state and civil society which were dedicated to the genocide of Roma.  
 
Within the study The Legal Treatment of the Holocaust in Romania (disseminated within the conference “Porajmos” / “Samudaripen” and Collective Memory in Twentieth-Century Southeastern Europe, „Lucian Blaga” University of Sibiu, February 26-27, 2015), Alexandru Climescu examined the representations about the Holocaust which the Romanian state  endorsed through legislation. The research focused on bot civil compensatory measures accessible to the victims of the communist regimes which were members of the Legionary Movement, as well as on the criminal legislation which bans Holocaust denial and fascist propaganda. According to the main conclusions, both compensatory and punitive measures are not synchronized with the historical reality of the holocaust and interwar fascism. Hence, until 2015, Emergency ordinance 31/2002 sanctioned the public worship of persons convicted for crimes against peace and humanity, although he persons who committed crimes during the Holocaust were convicted after 1945 for war crimes. Furthermore, it has been observed, based on legal precedents, the the manner in which the Holocaust war legally defined had a limitative effect and enabled magistrate to establish that the denial of the Romanian Holocaust does not fall under this law. Regarding the interdiction to grant compensations to persons who advocated for fascist, racist or xenophobic ideologies which were convicted on these grounds by the communist regime, it was highlighted that courts of law do not hold a unitary image about the fascist, racist or xenophobic nature o the Legionary Movement.
 
Another study prepared within this objective (Michael Shafir, Romania: Neither fish, nor fowl) was disseminated within the international conference „Holocaust Memorial Days in the EU. The challenges of commemoration in the 21st century” (organized by Memorialle dela Shoah, Milan, April 13-14, 2015) and is pending publication in an edited volume. The research is dedicated to the evolution of Holocaust official memory and the state’s efforts to implement the recommendations of the International Committee for the Study of the Holocaust in Romania. The author analyzes the dynamics of political discourses regarding the Holocaust, relevant legal measures, the involvement of the Romanian Academy and influent historians in the denial and trivialization of the Holocaust, as well as the involvement of Romanian authorities in combating and sanctioning negationist, anti-Semitic or fascist discourses. The conclusions of this study suggest that similar prejudice regarding the Holocaust in Romania can be found at all the political actors. Furthermore, the research approaches in a regional context the efforts of the Romanian state to fight against anti-Semitism and to promote Holocaust memory. The manner in which the pluralist version of Holocaust memory evolved in Romania differs from the Czech case, which serves as a model of adequate practices, and also from the Hungarian case which witnessed an involution in terms of accepting the tragedy of Jews during the Second World War.  
 
A comparative perspective is adopted by Michael Shafir also in the study Conceptualizing Hungarian negationism in comparative perspective: deflection and obfuscation („Cahiers d'Études Hongroises et Finlandaises”, „L’Europe à contre-pied: idéologie populiste et extrémisme de droite en Europe centrale et orientale”, 20/2014, L’Harmattan), which highlights  the resemblances between the processes of memory construction in Romania and Hungary. Thus, the study proves that the arguments invoked for the legitimation of Admiral Horthy’s public worship are similar to the ones employed in Romania for the justification of Ion Antonescu’s adoration. Furthermore, the research highlights that the means employed by some Hungarian historians to blame Jews for the Stalinist crimes are identical to the ones preferred by some Romanian historian, both cases being relevant for the process of Holocaust obfuscation through the double genocide thesis 
 
 
Objective 6 – Social representations regarding the Holocaust in Romania
 
In 2015, implementing this objective involved carrying out an opinion survey on a national representative sample regarding the Holocaust in Romania and the perception of interethnic relations. The main goal of this research was to obtain a clear image about the manner in which the Romania society understand the extermination mechanisms employed during the Holocaust, the victims’ identity and the perpetrators’ responsibility. 
 
According to the data collected through the survey, the Holocaust is localized by most of respondents as having taken place in Germany (73%); almost half of those interviewed agree that the Holocaust took place in other European countries (49%). Approximately a quarter of those interviewed agree that the Holocaust also took place in Romania. If we were to relate to persons who heard about the Holocaust, the percentage of those who know that the Holocaust happened in Romania too is 34 %. It is worth mentioning that 40% of the respondents who belong to the Hungarian minority agree that the Holocaust happened also in Romania. For those persons who know that the Holocaust took place in Romania, this historical phenomena is associated with the deportations of Jews from camps controlled by Nazi Germany (80%), a measure which is seconded by the forced expropriation and eviction (49%) and mass executions of Jews (47%). 
 
Nazi Germany is considered to be the main responsible for the Holocaust in Romania (69%), followed at a grat distance by the Antonescu Government (19%). When all responsible actors are enumerate, 86% consider Nazi Germany to be responsible for the Holocaust and the Antonescu Government is indicated by almost half of the respondents. When relating solely to internal actors, the main actors responsible are the Iron Guard (54%) and Ion Antonescu (54%). It is also worth mentioning that there is a strong association between the Iron Guard and the Holocast, 29% of the respondents considering that this organization was totally responsible for the Romanian Holocaust. In Comparison with other violent episodes from the history of Romania, the Holocaust is perceived as being equally grave by 40% of the respondents. However, 15% consider that the events which occurred during the Holocaust were much more severe that the crimes committed by Hungarians against Romanian between 1940 and 1944, the crimes committed by communists against Romanians and the killings of Romanian soldiers by the Soviet army during World War Two. 
 
More than two thirds of the respondents cannot evaluate Ion Antonescu, a fact which indicates poor knowledge about his activity and the events which occurred during that period. Ion Antonescu is praised as a great patriot by 54% of the respondents and as a great strategist by 52% of those interviewed.
 
Objectives Deliverables announced for 2015 stage Accomplished deliverables
Social memory and identity construction (O5)
 

Article

 

Article

Ana Bărbulescu, Discovering the Holocaust in our Past: Competing Memories in Post-Communist Romanian Textbooks in „Holocaust Studies: A Journal of Culture and History.”, 21:3 /2015, pp. 139-156. *The results of this research were described in the report for the 2014 stage of implementation. 
 
Ana Bărbulescu, The Holocaust as Reflected in Romanian Post-Communist Textbooks: Competitive Identities and Dangerous Memories within the International Congress organized by the Society for Romanian Studies (SRS), Bucharest, 17-19 June 2015.
The intellectual elite’s discourse on the Holocaust (O4)

Article 

Research report following the opinion survey
 
George Voicu, Post-communist Romania’s leading public intellectuals and the Holocaust in “Holocaust. Studii și cercetări”, no. 1 (8) / 2015.
 
The role of the state and civil society in the construction of Holocaust public memory (O7) Study disseminated withina scientific conference  
Alexandru Climescu, The Holocaust on Trial. Memory and Amnesia in the Case of Romanian War Criminals in „Holocaust. Studii și cercetări”, no. 1 (8) / 2015.
 
Alexandru Florian, From Ion Antonescu to the Saints of the Prisons. Extremist symbols in the public space  in „Sfera Politicii”, no. 2 (184) / 2015, pp. 66-82. 
 
Michael Shafir, Conceptualizing Hungarian negationism in comparative perspective: deflection and obfuscation in „Cahiers d'Études Hongroises et Finlandaises”, „L’Europe à contre-pied: idéologie populiste et extrémisme de droite en Europe centrale et orientale”, 20/2014, L’Harmattan. (published in 2015).
 
Alexandru Climescu, Representations of Romanian Holocaust Perpetrators: Historical vs. Judicial Truths, within the conference “The Holocaust in Southeastern Europe”, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum and INSHR-EW, 25-26 May, 2015, Bucharest. 
 
Alexandru Florian, Roma's Tragedy in Transnistria and the Public Memory of the Holocaust in Post-communism within conference “Porajmos” / “Samudaripen” and Collective Memory in Twentieth-Century Southeastern Europe, „Lucian Blaga”  University of Sibiu, 26-27 February 2015.
 
Alexandru Climescu, The Legal Treatment of the Holocaust in Romania in cadrul  “Porajmos” / “Samudaripen” and Collective Memory in Twentieth-Century Southeastern Europe„Lucian Blaga”  University of Sibiu, 26-27 February 2015.
 
Michael Shafir, Romania: Neither fish, nor fowl within „Holocaust Memorial Days in the EU. The challenges of commemoration in the 21st century”, Memoriale della Shoah, Milano, 13-14 April, 2015.
 
Opinion survey regarding the Holocaust in Romania and the perception of inter-ethnic relations available at  
http://www.inshr-ew.ro/ro/files/proiecte/Sondaje/Sondaj_opinie-INSHR-iunie_2015.pdf

 

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www.inshr-ew.ro este site-ul oficial al Institutului National pentru Studierea Holocaustului din Romania „Elie Wiesel” (denumit in continuare "INSHR-EW") pentru asigurarea unei mai mari transparente si o mai buna intelegere a activitatilor INSHR-EW.

Utilizarea site-ului www.inshr-ew.ro (denumit in continuare « site ») presupune acceptarea in totalitate a termenilor si conditiilor expuse mai jos.

Termenii si conditiile pot fi modificate in orice moment de catre administratorul site-ului, denumit in continuare « Administrator », fara notificarea prealabila a persoanelor care il utilizeaza, denumite in continuare « Utilizatori ».

Utilizatorii vor avea acces permanent la termenii si conditiile pentru utilizarea serviciilor pentru a le putea consulta in orice moment.

Accesand si navigand pe acest site, Utilizatorii accepta implicit, termenii de utilizare descrisi in continuare. In cazul in care nu sunt de acord cu termenii si conditiile impuse, Utilizatorii trebuie sa inceteze accesarea acestui serviciu.

 

Descrierea serviciilor

Prin intermediul sectiunilor sale, site-ul www.inshr-ew.ro ofera Utilizatorilor informatii cu privire la activitatea Institutului National pentru Studierea Holocaustului din Romania „Elie Wiesel”: activitati de cercetare privind Holocaustul din Romania, programe cultural-educative si de conservare a memoriei Holocaustului.

Ce este un serviciu electronic ?

In cadrul siteului www.inshr-ew.ro, un serviciu electronic reprezinta o resursa oferita prin Internet cu scopul de a imbunatati procesul de comunicare dintre cetateni si INSHR-EW.

Exista doua tipuri de servicii electronice oferite de www.inshr-ew.ro:

•         servicii de informare, care asigura cetatenilor, presei sau altor factori interesati acces usor si eficient la informatii, facilitand consultarea documentelor emise de catre Institutul National pentru Studierea Holocaustului din Romania „Elie Wiesel” ;

•         servicii de comunicare interactiva („Contact”) care permit un mai bun contact cu cetatenii, cu societatea civila si cu alti factori interesati, folosind mecanisme de tip feedback, cu scopul de a imbunatati serviciile si activitatile Institutul National pentru Studierea Holocaustului din Romania „Elie Wiesel”.

 

Neangajarea raspunderii

INSHR-EW intretine acest site pentru a inlesni accesul public la informatii privind activitatile sale. Administratorul depune eforturi pentru ca aceste informatii sa fie corecte si oferite la timp. La semnalarea eventualelor erori, Administratorul va incerca in cel mai scurt timp, corectarea acestora.

Informatia oferita:

•         este exclusiv de natura generala;

•         nu este in mod obligatoriu atotcuprinzatoare, completa, corecta sau actualizata;

•         poate contine legaturi web spre alte site-uri aspura continutului carora INSHR-EW nu detine nici un control si pentru care nu isi asuma nici o responsabilitate.

Un document disponibil pe site nu reproduce in mod obligatoriu textul unui document oficial.

Numai documentele si actele normative publicate pe hartie de catre organele abilitate sunt considerate autentice.

Administratorul nu isi asuma nici o raspundere in cazul in care anumite informatii sunt furnizate cu intarziere, sunt pierdute, sterse sau nu pot fi stocate pe serverele noastre din orice motive.

De asemenea, nu isi asuma nici o raspundere pentru consecintele care pot aparea datorita intarzierii, pierderii sau inexactitatii informatiilor publicate sau existente pe site.

Utilizatorii vor folosi informatiile furnizate in cadrul site-ului pe propria raspundere, iar in cazul unei daune generate de utilizarea serviciilor sau informatiilor furnizate, Utilizatorii accepta ca Administratorul va fi absolvit de orice raspundere.

Notiunea de neangajare a raspunderii nu se rasfrange si asupra obligatiei INSHR-EW de a respecta legislatia in vigoare si nu poate exclude obligatiile INSHR-EW impuse de lege.

 

Reguli generale

Administratorul siteului declara urmatoarele:

•         va depune toate eforturile rezonabile pentru realizarea scopului siteului;

•         va depune toate eforturile (din punct de vedere tehnic sau de alta natura) pentru functionarea in bune conditii a siteului; cu toate acestea, pot exista intreruperi in functionare, sau imposibilitati de accesare de catre Utilizatori, pe o perioada nedeterminata de timp, din orice motive;

•         pe masura aparitiei unor situatii noi de orice natura ce impun acest lucru, Administratorul poate modifica conditiile si termenii de utilizare.

Este posibil ca site-ul web sau informatiile afisate sa contina link-uri catre alte site-uri sau/si formulare sau servicii gestionate de terte persoane.

Prezenta Politica de Confidentialitate nu include practicile si politicile acestor terte persoane relationate cu serviciile sau site-urile respective. INSHR-EW nu controleaza site-urile respective si/sau formularele tertelor persoane. Utilizatorul va trebui sa consulte si sa verifice politica de confidentialitate a acelor site-uri/servicii, inainte de a le accesa sau utiliza.

In general, datele solicitate prin intermediul formularelor disponibile pe site sunt obligatorii si necesare pentru ca utilizatorul sa poata accesa si/sau utiliza serviciile la care se refera formularul in cauza ca de exemplu,  pentru solutionarea  cererilor, petitiilor, sugestiilor si a reclamatiilor, inclusiv prin intermediul unor terte persoane juridice.  Formularul poate indica, dupa caz, doar unele date ca fiind optionale.

In cazul in care nu sunt furnizate toate datele considerate ca obligatorii si necesare, INSHR-EW va putea, in anumite cazuri, sa suspende accesul la utilizarea serviciului in cauza sau sa nu dea curs solicitarii neconforme realizate de catre Utilizator.

Contact

  • Adresa: Bucureşti, Bulevardul Dacia, nr. 89, sector 2, cod postal 020052
  • Telefon/Fax: +40-21-318 09 39
  • E-mail: office@inshr-ew.ro