Institutul Național pentru Studierea Holocaustului din România “Elie Wiesel”

Scientific report (second stage)

Regarding the implementation of the project
“The Reconstruction of Holocaust Public Memory in Post-communism”
2014
 
During this phase of the implementation process (2014) the objectives and activities proposed within the project plan were fulfilled in their entirety. Further on we present the synthesis of the envisaged objectives, a description of the proposed implementation strategies, as well as the results of our research and dissemination activities.
 
Objective 4 – The intellectual elite’s discourse on the Holocaust
 
Our main interest consisted in explaining how the Romanian post-communist intellectual elite constructed its discourse in regard with the Romanian chapter of the Holocaust. For this part of the analysis our focus was on the books and articles trying to recover different manners of reconstructing Romania’s participation to the Holocaust. The research materialized in study published by Michael Shafir, (Wars of Memory in Post-Communist in course of publication in „The Power of Memory. Post-Socialist Historiography between democratization and New Politics of History”, ed. Oto Luthar, Central European University Press, 2015).
 
The author proves in a diligently manner that, as in many other former Communist countries, a “competitive martyrdom” struggle erupted in Romania soon after the collapse of the former regime.
 
The first part of this paper analyses the double genocide theory that lies at the root of most competitive martyrdom endeavors. The author proposes a vast conceptual apparatus to be used in the construction of his explanatory model. Take for example Marriane Hersch’s concept of “post-memory”, R. Bella’s “practices of commitment”, J. Alexander’s concepts of “cultural trauma” or “carrier groups of trauma process”, Y. Zerubavel’s “master commemorative narratives” or the classic “pressure of history” theorized by C. Lévi-Strauss. Competitive martyrdom is driven by much of the same psychosocial factors of collective memory as the Holocaust and seeks to emulate the success of defenders of Holocaust victims’ memory, being driven by the collective trauma of enforced Sovietization and de-nationalization. This often leads, shows the author, to “Holocaust obfuscation.”
 
The second part of the analysis takes a step further and shows how and why this obfuscation has its roots in official narratives developed under the previous Communist regime in Romania.
 
Following the collapse of Communism, several local historians have also tackled what remains a very sensitive issue. Naturally, views differ, but in one form or another, all these historians embraced one shade or other of the double genocide approach. Yet among these elderly or middle-aged generations, there were also some notable exceptions. And beginning with the new millenium, one remarks that some members of a new generation of historians (and political scientists) distance themselves from their predecessors’ treatment of the recent past.
 
The third and final part of the paper analyses the Official (Holocaust responsibility acknowledgement) Memory vs. Post-Memory, the latter dimension demonstrating that the trauma of Sovietization continues to be the dominating aspect in the Romanian historic narrative.
 
In 2002 the Romanian Government issued the Governmental Ordinance 31 which forbade the denial of the Holocaust and the cult of its perpetrators while in October was set up the International Commission on the Holocaust in Romania chaired by Professor Elie Wiesel. In November 2004 the Commission’s Final Report was published, accepted and endorsed by the Romanian head of state. With the acceptance of the Commission’s findings and the start of the implementation of its recommendations, the Romanian state as such seemed to acknowledge and assume responsibility for participation in the Holocaust, thus turning that episode into official memory.
 
But historians’ master commemorative narrative does not change in line with official memory, and the Romanians, shows the author, are no exception.
 
Romania’s post-Communist wars of memory are waged by heterogeneous armies and on several fronts. Historians are just one regiment, and not even that regiment is homogenous. What makes them serve under the same banner, concludes the author, is a master commemorative narrative (Romania as victim), enforced by a cultural trauma (Sovietization, Communization) and represented by collective agents (the community of historians) who engage in a circular exercise of guilt externalization (the grammar of exculpation) resulting in competitive martyrdom in order to reinforce the main narrative. Other regiments, just as heterogeneous (for example the literati) also contribute to an effort that aims at countering the Jewish memory of the Holocaust with the counter-memory of the Gulag. The examples discussed by the author are quite extensive: G. Buzatu, G. Roncea. P. Goma, I. Coja, C. Lupu, I. Scurtu, D. Berindei. F. Constantiniu, D. Giurescu proving that the trauma of Sovietization continues to be the dominating aspect in the Romanian historic narrative and this approach often leads to Holocaust obfuscation.
 
In his study Unacademic academics: Holocaust deniers and trivializers in post- Communist Romania („Nationalities Papers: The Journal of Nationalism and Ethnicity”, vol. 42, no. 6, 2014, pp. 942-964), Michael Shafir discusses both cultural traumas and historians’ personal biographies in order to thighlight the factors that favour denying and trivializing Holocaust discourses. After examining the intellectuals’ biography, most of them members associated to the Romanian Academy, the author stresses on their collaboration with the former “Securitate” as a possible explanatory variable of this type of discourse, considering the “Romanianization” process of the secret police and the anti-Semitism cultivated by it. However, according to his findings, Shafir considers that the intellectuals’ biographies ecplain only partly the messages which minimize the persecution and extermination of Jews by the Romanian state ot the discourses which exculpate the opressors.
 
Referring to the concept of “cultural trauma”, Michael Shafir highlights that the topic of Romania’s territorial losses, cultivated since 1966 by the Ceaușescu regime, brought a dominant historical narrative concerned with Romania’s territorial integrity and the negative influence of external hostile forces. Hence, this explains not only the exculpatory process of Antonescu, since he was perceived as a unifier of Romania, but also the representation of Jews as agents of a foreign power.
 
Objective 5 – Collective memory and social construction
 
During the implementation of this objective we were interested in constructing a theoretical model that links collective memory and social identity as interdependent variables in the process of reality construction. Our research interest materialized in two articles: one that was constructed as a case study and approaches the memory of Tg. Jiu camp from the perspective developed by Pierre Nora with his well-known distinction between lieux de mémoire and lieux d’histoire (Ana Bǎrbulescu, “Târgu-Jiu Camp – Between History and Memory” in Holocaust. Studii şi cercetǎri, vol. VI, no. 1(7)/2014) and a second that offers an exhaustive analysis of the Romanian history textbooks published after 1989 where our main question could be formulated as following: In which manner the identity narrative ascribed to one’s group determines the way in which a sensitive event of the history of the said group is remembered? (Ana Bǎrbulescu, “Discovering the Holocaust in our Past: Competing Memories in Post-Communist Romanian Textbooks” in peer-review process for Holocaust Studies: A Journal of Culture and History).  The theoretical and explanatory approaches of both articles will be detailed below.
 
“Târgu-Jiu Camp – Between History and Memory” in Holocaust. Studii şi cercetǎri, vol. VI, no. 1(7)/2014.
 
A survey conducted at the end of 2013 proved that almost 25 years after the fall of communism, 69% of the Romanian population still holds Germany responsible for the Holocaust of the Romanian Jews[1]. However, according to the same survey, 75% of the respondents accept the reality of Transnistria deportations, 72% accept the reality of the anti-Jewish legislation imposed upon the members of the Jewish community while 66% identify the extermination of the Jews as a characteristic of the Holocaust of the Romanian Jews.
 
The sore spot seems to be responsibility as when the question is put in an explicit manner, two thirds of those questioned still point, as already said, toward our German allies.
 
Acknowledging this inconsistency that characterizes the public memory of the Holocaust within the Romanian society, the study turns upon Târgu-Jiu camp, probably the best known camp operational during Antonescu’s regime.
 
Consequently, our first question was quite simple: How is Târgu-Jiu camp remembered in today Romania? The second will take us to the realm of social constructivism: Is the memory of Târgu-Jiu camp inconsistent with the historical facts? 
 
Considering mass-media one of the most important vectors of memory we dwelt upon the (hi)story of Târgu-Jiu camp as reconstructed by diverse media channels operating in today’s Romania. The condoned research allowed us to identify 12 items: three TV programs and nine articles. The methodological approach was a qualitative one.
 
From a theoretical perspective, our analysis dwelt upon three major developments: Pierre Nora’s distinction between lieux de mémoire, lieux d’histoire and lieux d’oubli, Halbwachs’ theoretization of collective memory as socially constructed and Irwin-Zarecka’s conceptualization of communities built through meaningful memorialization.
 
Acknowledging this theoretical approach, we have turned toward Târgu-Jiu camp searching to identify the way the history of the later is reconstructed in the Romanian media. It has become a lieu de mémoire or a lieu d’oubli? And when the former was the case, what is actually remembered through its singularisation as a lieu de mémoire? There is a sole version of the past remembered through Tg. Jiu camp? And if there are many, which “past” is the one reinforced by the displacement operated by each of the analyzed mnemonic reconstructions?
 
To answer these questions, we have firstly dwelt upon Târgu-Jiu camp from a historical perspective. The analysis of the official documents of the time allowed us to identify three periods in the existence of the camp: 1) November 1939 – February 1941 when it sheltered the Polish war refugees; 2) February 1941 – August 1944 when it was defined as a camp for political detainees but the categories of those imprisoned not always overlapped the definition of reality given by the Romanian authorities (see for example the Jews between Siret and Prut that were interned in Tg. Jiu camp just because they were Jews); and 3) August 1944 – early 1945 when it sheltered German ethnics before being sent to Siberia.
 
Looking to the camp story from the perspective offered by Nora we have acknowledged it as a lieu d’histoire that offers us keys to understand several aspects of the Romanian history: Romania’s attitudes toward the Allied forces before our country officially became an ally of the Nazi Germany, Romania’s implication in the Holocaust and the fate of the Jewish communities or Romania’s policies toward its ethnic minorities before and after August 1944.
 
What happens when we step within the realm of memory? Will we still find this all-inclusive reconstruction of the past? Or the past is reconstructed by retaining some elements while completely displacing others? In other words, when Târgu-Jiu camp is acknowledged as a lieu de mémoire how does it looks the past that we remember through it?
 
As the table below clearly shows, two general observations arise after analyzing our twelve mnemonic vectors: the camp is mainly remembered for its Polish refugees and/or its communist detainees. Ten out of the twelve articles and/or TV programs develop the story of the camp dwelling in a shorter or lengthier manner on the Polish militaries sheltered there until February 1941 and/or the communists detained in Tg. Jiu between February 1941 and August 1944.
 

ITEM

Polish refugees

Intellectuals/writers

Communists

Legionnaires

Jews

German ethnics

1

**

**

 

 

 

 

2

***

***/TA

*

*

 

 

3

***

*

*

 

 

 

4

***

*

*

*

*

 

5

*

***/TA

*

*

*

 

6

**

***/TA

***

*

*

*

7

 

*

***

 

*

 

8

 

 

***

 

 

 

9

*

*

***

 

 

 

10

*

 

 

 

 

 

11

*

 

***

 

*

 

12

*

 

***

 

 

 

*** main focus; ** slightly development; *only mentions; TA=Tudor Arghezi as main focus;

Regarding the Polish refugees, in three of these ten instances (ITEMS 2, 3 and 4) the story of the camp is circumscribed to their good fortune during their staying in Tg. Jiu, a position that reinforces in an explicit manner the positive portrait ascribed to the Romanian people.

The third most used narrative used in the description of the camp is circumscribed to Arghezi’s three months staying in the camp. When this is the narrative chosen to tell the story of Târgu-Jiu camp (ITEMS 2, 5 and 6) we observed the development of the mnemonic discourse on a comparative dimension. Using Arghezi’s memories, Tg. Jiu camp is presented in a positive manner, the emphasis being put on the comparison between the life quality of political prisoners during Antonescu’s regime and that specific to the communist era. All these authors seem to be unaware that Arghezi was not a regular detainee and was not treated as such by the camp authorities. Secondly, Tg. Jiu camp cannot be used as proof of the mild imprisonment regime imposed by Antonescu to those that he declared to be his enemies as long as the later was responsible for opening hundreds of ghettos and camps in Transnistria, all characterized by grueling living conditions.
 
The Jewish detainees are mentioned only five times, each time very briefly. In two of these instances, they are labeled as communists or as being accused of communist unrest while on a third we learn that there were some Jews in Tg. Jiu but in 1942 they “left for Transnistria”.
 
The members of the Legionary Movement are mentioned four times (ITEMS 2, 4, 5 and 6) while the German ethnics only once (ITEM 6).
 
Returning to our starting point: if we consider the Romanian mass-media a vector of memory, how we will find Târgu-Jiu camp, as a lieu de mémoire or as a lieu d’oubli? The answer we have reached was an unexpected one: it is both a lieu de mémoire and a lieu d’oubli, depending of what we are willing to remember.
 
Our enquiry proves that collective memory is all-encompassing and operates in a structural manner, following the principle of internal consistency.
 
Consequently, Târgu-Jiu is remembered in manners that are consistent with the definition of reality accepted as historical truth by the broader Romanian society: 1) as a camp for war refugees a stance that is consistent with our self-definition as a tolerant and hospitable people; and 2) as a camp for political prisoners were the inmates were well cared a stance that when developed on a comparative note renders Antonescu’s regime better that the communist one.
 
The mnemonic narratives we have analyzed don’t really talk about the Jews in Târgu-Jiu. We dare say, the choice is not random as if they would, the uncomfortable question of what happened to them could arise. To answer following the historical documents and acknowledge they were deported to Transnistria by the Romanian authorities would make your message dissonant with the mnemonic narrative held by the broad Romanian society as historical truth. Consequently, the Jews are removed from the story and the memory of Târgu-Jiu camp is placed within the mnemonic narrative that holds Germany responsible for the fate of the Romanian Jews. Within the history of the Holocaust of the Romanian Jews, Târgu-Jiu camp has become a lieu d’oubli.
 
“Discovering the Holocaust in our Past: Competing Memories in Post-Communist Romanian Textbooks” in peer-review process for Holocaust Studies: A Journal of Culture and History
 
History textbooks should be the primary sources when searching for historical facts. And so, our first question came quite naturally: How is the Holocaust presented in the Romanian textbooks published after 1989?
 
Acknowledging the functionalist character of any mnemonic reconstruction, the question was approached by putting forward a theoretical framework that links memory and identity as dependent variables in the process of constructing social reality. Going further, we posited an explanatory model that viewed the relation between identity and memory as being dialectical and explained the connection using Festinger’s theory of cognitive dissonance.
 
 This theoretical approach led us to a second question: Is there any connection between the way in which we deal with our dangerous memories and the way in which we construct our identity?
 
Turning toward the textbooks, we have identified six distinct ways of remembering Romania’s involvement in the Holocaust: A) The Holocaust is completely absent; B) Romania as a saviour of the Jews; C) Discrimination without deportations; D) Deportations to camps for unnamed victims; E) Deportation without the Final Solution; and F) The Romanian Holocaust: discrimination, pogroms, and deportations. 
 
Going one step further and bringing into play the second variable of the analysis—how Romanian identity is constructed in the same textbooks and how Romanian history appears from the perspective put forwards by the same authors—three discursive models have been recuperated. They could be synthesized as: 1) Mystic nationalism; 2) A people like none other; and 3) A people among others. The first two, construct the history of the Romanian people in a utopian manner, while the latter offers an objective approach to our past.
 
Furthermore, the first two methods of constructing Romanian identity (mystic nationalism and a people like none other) share a common feature; they read history in a continuous manner. In the first instance, this continuous reading of history is expressed in the construction of a common conscience shared by the Romanian people throughout history. We are similar because our inner core is virtually the same. Within the second model, the continuous reading of history takes the form of common territoriality. We are similar because we share the same territory and we are special because, in the past, this territory was inhabited by great historical figures.
 
When we put both of our variables together, it became clear that the discursive models where the fate of the Romanian Jews during the Second World War was presented in a distorted manner (models A, B, C, D and E) were nothing more than strategies of avoiding the cognitive dissonance raised by the potential crisscrossing within the same historical narrative of the utopian portrait ascribed to the Romanian nation and the Holocaust of the Romanian Jews.
 
This finding proves to be one of great importance as it helped us identify and explain the strong connection that exists between the identity and mnemonic narratives shared by a group. When the identity narrative is structured according to the principle of a continuous reading of history, the victories of the Romanians’ ancestors and the fate of the Romanian Jews during the Second World War become elements of the same cluster of cognitions, which due to their reciprocal relevance need to respect the rule of internal consistency. When this condition is not fulfilled, we enter the realm of cognitive dissonance, and so the history of the Holocaust is rewritten in order to make it coherent with the ideal portrait painted of the Romanian people.
 
As expected, the authors that offer a broad development of Holocaust related topics (model F) follow the third model of reconstructing our past (a people among others), opting for an objective approach to the Romanians’ history.
 
Consequently, identity and memory are two sides of the same coin, with the former being the more powerful instrument in the construction of the latter. Therefore, in order to salvage a consistent model of identity, we construct our mnemonic narratives in structured clusters of cognitions that follow the principle of internal consistency.
 
The results of this research were also disseminated during the Xth Congress of the European Association for the Jewish Studies (EAJS 2014, www.eajscongress2014.com) were Ana Bărbulescu presented the paper The Holocaust as Reflected in Romanian Post-Communist Textbooks: Competitive Identities and Dangerous Memories. The congress was hosted by École Normale Supériore/ Sorbonne, École des Hautes Études, Paris.
 
Objective 7 – The role of the state and civil society in the construction of Holocaust public memory
 
Under this objective the project aimed to analyze the efforts made by state institutions in order to construct an official Holocaust memory and also to analyze the civil society’s responses to official remembrance practices.
 
The research activities carried during this stage of the project were focused on analyzing the way in which the legislative and judiciary authority recollected the Holocaust. We have taken into account the parliamentary debates occasioned by commemorative events or by the adoption of legislative measures. Furthermore, the implementation of this objective involved carrying out case studies regarding the acquittal, by post-communist courts of law, o war criminals convicted after the Second World War for the involvement in the persecution, evacuation and deportation of Jews from Bessarabia and Bukovina.
 
Hence, the presentation titled “Perceptions of the Holocaust in Northern Transylvania and the Territories controlled by the Romanian State”, delivered by Alexandru Climescu within the conference 70 Years since the Holocaust of Jews from Northern Transylvania (organized on May, 16 by the Faculty of European Studies, Babeș-Bolyai University, The Jewish Community in Cluj-Napoca and INSHR-EW), analyzed in a comparative manner the Parliament’s representations regarding the extermination of Jews from Northern Transylvania and those from the Romanian territories. The conclusions highlighted the fact that until 2006, the nature of Holocaust recollection within the legislative had been competitive. The prevailing discourse evoked the persecution and extermination of Jews from Northern Transylvania, which was under Hungarian control, while the Holocaust in the territories controlled by the Antonescu government was denied or trivialized. This phenomenon culminated during the debates on Law no. 107/2006 (referring to the prohibition of racist, xenophobic and fascist symbols, organizations and of the public worship of war criminals), which were marked by deflective denial and attempts to exculpate Marshall Antonescu. Furthermore, the memory sphere dedicated to the extermination of Jews was structures in accordance with the ideological and ethnic cleavages present in the Legislative. Hence, the Holocaust in Northern Transylvania was mainly capitalized by the Great Romania Party members and invoked during their disputes with the representatives of the Democratic Union of Romanian Hungarians. The messages we analyzed suggest that the adoption of Law 107/2006 was not properly acknowledged by the MPs as a reparatory just measure, but as a required imposed from outside, necessary to the Euro-Atlantic integration of Romania.
 
The acquittal, by post-communist courts of law, of war criminals directly involved in the persecution and extermination of Romanian Jews represented another research topic approached during this stage. Following an activity of archival research, five cases were identified and the members of the team, based on archival documentation, carried out two case studies which were disseminated within scientific publications. In The public memory and the traps of the justice acts (“Sfera Politicii” no. 180-181m 2014, pp. 220-243), Alexandru Florian published a series of edited and inedited documents about Radu Dinulescu, chief of the 2nd Section within the General Staff, convicted in 1957 for involvement in the organization of the Iași Pogrom and the deportation, nut acquitted in 1998 by the Supreme Court of Justice. The author discusses the ambiguous relationship between history, memory and justice, highlighting the contradictory nature of public memory with regard to those responsible for war crimes. Alexandru Florian shows that the criminal sentence against some persona convicted for war crimes (Mircea Vulcănescu, Ion Antonescu)is ignored on the public space, in favor of a partisan interpretation of history, based on which these persons are treated as national heroes. In the same time, the case of Dinulescu highlights a situation in which the decision of a court of law ignores historical realities.
 
The case of Radu Dinulescu, along with that of Gheorghe Petrescu, his subordinate, is also approached by Alexandru Climescuin the article Post-transitional injustice. The acquittal of Holocaust perpetrators in post-communist Romania (“Holocaust. Studies and research”, no. 1 (7) / 2014, pp. 145-157). Based on archive documents, the author details the involvement of the two officers in the persecution of Romanian Jews and discusses the factors which made possible their acquittal by post-communist courts of law. The study shows that although the two officers were convicted after the war for similar doings, communist courts of law applied a different legal qualification in the case of Dinulescu. If at the beginning, both officers were convicted based on a legislation regarding war crimes, subsequently, Radu Dinulescu was retrialed for committing crimes against the working class and the revolutionary movement. The study suggests that the differentiated treatment  applied to him resides in the communist regime’s tendency to distort the history of the Holocaust and eliminate Jews as the main category of victims oppressed by the Antonescu regime. Despite this differences, the decisions issued by the Supreme Court of Justice at the end of the ‘90s in both cases are similar. According to the study’s conclusions, the judges accepted as solid evidence the declarations of witnesses favorable to the culprits without questioning their truthfulness. Furthermore, in opposition to the post-Nuremberg international legal doctrine, the Court interpreted that the orders transmitted and applied by the two officers do not incriminate them since these were received from their superiors. Furthermore, the arguments on which the Court’s decision is based are entirely taken from the memorandum of the General prosecutor, the judges’ contribution in the resolution of the cases being minimal. The irrevocable decisions of the Supreme Court of Justice reconstructed an immutable version of the past, giving birth to an official auto-referential memory, based on an exacerbated separation between the judicial and historical truth.  

Objectives

Deliverables announced for 2014

Deliverables resulted

The role of the state and civil society in the construction of Holocaust public memory(O7)

 

Article

Article

Article

Study disseminated within a conference

Study disseminated within a conference

Study disseminated within a conference: Alexandru Climescu, Perceptions of the Holocaust in Northern Transylvania and the Territories controlled by the Romanian State, “70 Years since the Holocaust of Jews from Northern Transylvania”, Babeș-Bolyai University, Faculty of European Studies, INSHR-EW, The Romanian Academy – Cluj-Napoca Branch, 26-27 May 2014.

 Article indexed in IDB: Alexandru Climescu,Post-transitional injustice. The acquittal of Holocaust perpetrators in post-communist Romania, “Holocaust. Studies and Research”, no. 1 (7) / 2014, pp. 145-157.

Article indexed in IDB : Alexandru Florian,  The public memory and the traps of the justice acts, „Sfera Politicii” no. 180-191, pp. 220-243.

Social memory and identity construction (O5)

Article indexed in IDB:  

Ana Bărbulescu, Târgu-Jiu

Camp – Between History and

Memory in „Holocaust.

 Studies and research”,

vol. VI, no. 1(7)/2014,pp. 9-29.

Article in course of publication: Ana Bărbulescu,Discovering the Holocaust in our Past: Competing Memories in Post-Communist Romanian Textbooks in „Holocaust Studies: A Journal of Culture and History”.

Study disseminated within an international conference: Ana Bărbulescu,  The Holocaust as Reflected in Romanian Post-Communist Textbooks: Competitive Identities and Dangerous Memories,  „Xth Congress of the European Association for the Jewish Studies” (EAJS 2014, www.eajscongress2014.com). The Congress was hosted by École Normale Supériore/ Sorbonne, École des Hautes Études, Paris (20-24 july 2014).

The intellectual elite’s discourse on the Holocaust (O4)

 

 

Study disseminated within an international conference: Michael Shafir, Post-communist counter-memories, “The 13th EASA Biennial Conference - Collaboration, Intimacy & Revolution - innovation and continuity in an interconnected world”, organized by EASA and the Department of Social and Cultural Anthropology, Estonian Institute of Humanities, Tallinn University, Talinn, 31st July – 3rd August 2014.

Chapter in a book, in course of publication: Michael Shafir, Wars of Memory in Post-Communist Romania in „The Power of Memory. Post-Socialist Historiography between democratization and New Politics of History”, ed. Oto Luthar, Central European University Press, 2015

Article indexed in IDB: Michael Shafir,Unacademic academics: Holocaust deniers and trivializers in post- Communist Romania(„Nationalities Papers: The Journal of Nationalism and Ethnicity”, vol. 42, no. 6, pp. 942-964

 

 

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• inregistrare a utilizatorilor.

 

Alte cookie-uri ale tertelor parti

Pe unele pagini, tertii pot seta propriile cookie-uri anonime, in scopul de a urmari succesul unei aplicatii sau pentru a particulariza o aplicatie. Datorita modului de utilizare, website-ul nu poate accesa aceste cookie-uri, la fel cum tertele parti nu pot accesa cookie-urile detinute de respectivul website. De exemplu, cand utilizatorul distribuie un articol folosind butonul pentru retelele sociale aflat pe un website, acea retea sociala va inregistra activitatea utiliatorului, nu website-ul pe care se afla butonul.

 

Ce tip de informatii sunt stocate si accesate prin intermediul cookie-urilor?

Cookie-urile pastreaza informatii intr-un fisier text de mici dimensiuni, care permit unui website sa recunoasca un browser. Web-serverul va recunoaste browserul, pana cand cookie-ul expira sau este sters. Cookie-ul stocheaza informatii importante, care imbunatatesc experienta de navigare pe Internet, de exemplu:

• setarile limbii in care se doreste accesarea unui site;

• pastrarea unui utilizator logat in contul de webmail;

• securitatea online banking;

• pastrarea produselor in cosul de cumparaturi.

 

De ce sunt cookie-urile importante pentru Internet?

Cookie-urile reprezinta punctul central al functionarii eficiente a Internetului, ajutand la generarea unei experiente de navigare prietenoase si adaptata preferintelor si intereselor fiecarui utilizator.Refuzarea sau dezactivarea cookie-urilor poate face unele website-uri imposibil de folosit. Refuzarea sau dezactivarea cookie-urilor nu inseamna ca utilizatorul nu va mai primi publicitate online - ci doar ca aceasta nu va mai putea tine cont de preferintele si interesele utilizatorului, evidentiate prin comportamentul de navigare.

Exemple de intrebuintari importante ale cookie-urilor (care nu necesita autentificarea unui utilizator prin intermediul unui cont):

• continut si servicii adaptate preferintelor utilizatorului - categorii de stiri, vreme, sport, harti, servicii publice si guvernamentale, website-uri distractive si servicii de turism;

• oferte adaptate pe interesele utilizatorilor - retinerea parolelor, preferintelor de limba (ex.: afisarea rezultatelor cautarilor in limba romana)

• retinerea filtrelor de protectie a copiilor privind continutul pe Internet (optiuni family mode, functii de safe search);

• masurarea, optimizarea si caracteristicile de analytics - cum ar fi: confirmarea unui anumit nivel de trafic pe un website, ce tip de continut este vizualizat si modul cum un utilizator ajunge pe un website (ex. prin motoare de cautare, direct, din alte website-uri etc.). Detinatorii website-urilor deruleaza aceste analize pentru a perfectiona website-urile, in beneficiul utilizatorilor.

 

Securitate si probleme legate de confidentialitate

Cookie-urile NU sunt virusi! Ele folosesc formate tip plain text. Nu sunt alcatuite din bucati de cod, asa ca nu pot fi executate, nici nu pot rula in mod automat. In consecinta, nu se pot duplica sau replica pe alte retele pentru a rula sau a se replica din nou. Deoarece nu pot indeplini aceste functii, nu pot fi considerate virusi. Cookie-urile pot fi, totusi, folosite pentru scopuri negative. Deoarece stocheaza informatii despre preferintele si istoricul de navigare al utilizatorilor, atat pe un anume website cat si pe alte website-uri, cookie-urile pot fi folosite ca o forma de Spyware. Multe produse anti-spyware sunt constiente de acest fapt si, in mod constant, marcheaza cookie-urile pentru a fi sterse, in cadrul procedurilor de stergere/scanare anti-virus/anti-spyware. In general, browserele au integrate reglaje de confidentialitate, care furnizeaza diferite nivele de acceptare a cookie-urilor, perioada de valabilitate si stergere automata dupa ce utilizatorul a vizitat un anumit site.

 

Alte aspecte de securitate legate de cookie-uri

Deoarece protectia identitatii este foarte valoroasa si reprezinta dreptul fiecarui utilizator de Internet, este indicat sa se stie ce eventuale probleme pot crea cookie-urile.

Pentru ca prin intermediul lor se transmit in mod constant, in ambele sensuri, informatii intre browser si website, daca un atacator sau persoana neautorizata intervine in parcursul de transmitere a datelor, informatiile continute de cookie pot fi interceptate. Desi foarte rar, acest lucru se poate intampla daca browserul se conecteaza la server folosind o retea necriptata (ex.: o retea WiFi nesecurizata).

Alte atacuri bazate pe cookie implica reglaje gresite ale cookie-urilor pe webservere. Daca un website nu solicita browserului sa foloseasca doar canale criptate, atacatorii pot folosi aceasta vulnerabilitate pentru a pacali browserele in a trimite informatii prin intermediul canalelor nesecurizate. Atacatorii utilizeaza apoi informatiile cu scopul de a accesa neautorizat anumite site-uri.

Este foarte important ca utilizatorii sa fie atenti in alegerea metodei celei mai potrivite de protectie a informatiilor personale.

 

Sfaturi pentru o navigare sigura si responsabila, bazata pe cookies

Datorita flexibilitatii lor si a faptului ca majoritatea dintre cele mai vizitate website-uri, inclusiv cele mai mari, folosesc cookie-uri, acestea sunt aproape inevitabile. Dezactivarea cookie-urilor nu va permite accesul utilizatorului pe site-urile cele mai raspandite si utilizate, printre care: Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, Gmail, Yahoo si altele.

Iata cateva sfaturi care va pot asigura ca navigati fara grija, insa cu ajutorul cookie-urilor:

• particularizati-va reglajele browserului, in ceea ce priveste cookie-urile, pentru a reflecta un nivel confortabil pentru dumneavoastra al securitatii utilizarii cookie-urilor;

• daca nu va deranjeaza cookie-urile si sunteti singura persoana care utilizeaza computerul, puteti regla termene lungi de expirare pentru stocarea istoricului de navigare si al datelor personale de acces;

• daca impartiti accesul la calculator, puteti lua in considerare reglarea browserului pentru a sterge datele individuale de navigare de fiecare data cand inchideti browserul. Aceasta este o varianta de a accesa website-urile care plaseaza cookie-uri si de a sterge orice informatie de vizitare, la inchiderea sesiunii de navigare;

• instalati-va si actualizati-va constant aplicatii antispyware. Multe dintre aplicatiile de detectare si prevenire a spyware-ului includ detectarea atacurilor pe site-uri. Astfel, impiedica browserul de a accesa website-uri care ar putea sa exploateze vulnerabilitatile browserului sau sa descarce software periculos;

• asigurati-va ca aveti browserul mereu actualizat. Multe dintre atacurile bazate pe cookies se realizeaza exploatand punctele slabe ale versiunilor vechi ale browserelor.

Cookie-urile sunt pretutindeni si nu pot fi evitate, daca doriti sa va bucurati de acces pe cele mai bune si cele mai mari site-uri de pe Internet - locale sau internationale. Cu o intelegere clara a modului lor de operare si a beneficiilor pe care le aduc, puteti lua masurile necesare de securitate, astel incat sa puteti naviga cu incredere pe Internet.

Cum procedati daca nu doriti sa fie instalate module cookie pe computerul dumneavoastra?

Exista persoane pentru care stocarea unor informatii extrase din computerul sau dispozitivul lor mobil are un caracter relativ invaziv, mai ales atunci cand informatiile in cauza sunt stocate si utilizate de catre terti care le sunt necunoscuti. Daca preferati, aveti posibilitatea de a bloca toate modulele cookie sau doar pe unele dintre acestea ori chiar de a elimina module cookie care au fost instalate pe terminalul dumneavoastra. Fiti insa constient de faptul ca riscati sa nu puteti utiliza anumite functii. Pentru a activa acest blocaj, trebuie sa modificati parametrii de confidentialitate ai browserului. Unii operatori terti au elaborat instrumente ale caror module permit sa se dezactiveze culegerea si utilizarea datelor. Dezactivarea si refuzul de a primi cookie-uri pot face anumite site-uri impracticabile sau dificil de vizitat si folosit. De asemenea, refuzul de a accepta cookie-uri nu inseamna ca utilizatorul nu va mai primi / vedea publicitate online. Este posibila reglarea din browser pentru ca aceste cookie-uri sa nu mai fie acceptate, sau se poate regla browserul sa accepte cookie-uri de la un anumit website. Dar, de exemplu, daca un utilizator nu este inregistat folosind cookie-urile, nu va putea lasa comentarii. Toate browserele moderne ofera posibilitatea de a schimba reglajele cookie-urilor.

Aceste reglaje se gasesc, de regula, in meniurile (butoanele) "Optiuni", "Reglaje" sau "Preferinte" ale browserului.

 

Termeni si conditii de utilizare a siteului www.inshr-ew.ro

 

Acceptarea conditiilor

www.inshr-ew.ro este site-ul oficial al Institutului National pentru Studierea Holocaustului din Romania „Elie Wiesel” (denumit in continuare "INSHR-EW") pentru asigurarea unei mai mari transparente si o mai buna intelegere a activitatilor INSHR-EW.

Utilizarea site-ului www.inshr-ew.ro (denumit in continuare « site ») presupune acceptarea in totalitate a termenilor si conditiilor expuse mai jos.

Termenii si conditiile pot fi modificate in orice moment de catre administratorul site-ului, denumit in continuare « Administrator », fara notificarea prealabila a persoanelor care il utilizeaza, denumite in continuare « Utilizatori ».

Utilizatorii vor avea acces permanent la termenii si conditiile pentru utilizarea serviciilor pentru a le putea consulta in orice moment.

Accesand si navigand pe acest site, Utilizatorii accepta implicit, termenii de utilizare descrisi in continuare. In cazul in care nu sunt de acord cu termenii si conditiile impuse, Utilizatorii trebuie sa inceteze accesarea acestui serviciu.

 

Descrierea serviciilor

Prin intermediul sectiunilor sale, site-ul www.inshr-ew.ro ofera Utilizatorilor informatii cu privire la activitatea Institutului National pentru Studierea Holocaustului din Romania „Elie Wiesel”: activitati de cercetare privind Holocaustul din Romania, programe cultural-educative si de conservare a memoriei Holocaustului.

Ce este un serviciu electronic ?

In cadrul siteului www.inshr-ew.ro, un serviciu electronic reprezinta o resursa oferita prin Internet cu scopul de a imbunatati procesul de comunicare dintre cetateni si INSHR-EW.

Exista doua tipuri de servicii electronice oferite de www.inshr-ew.ro:

•         servicii de informare, care asigura cetatenilor, presei sau altor factori interesati acces usor si eficient la informatii, facilitand consultarea documentelor emise de catre Institutul National pentru Studierea Holocaustului din Romania „Elie Wiesel” ;

•         servicii de comunicare interactiva („Contact”) care permit un mai bun contact cu cetatenii, cu societatea civila si cu alti factori interesati, folosind mecanisme de tip feedback, cu scopul de a imbunatati serviciile si activitatile Institutul National pentru Studierea Holocaustului din Romania „Elie Wiesel”.

 

Neangajarea raspunderii

INSHR-EW intretine acest site pentru a inlesni accesul public la informatii privind activitatile sale. Administratorul depune eforturi pentru ca aceste informatii sa fie corecte si oferite la timp. La semnalarea eventualelor erori, Administratorul va incerca in cel mai scurt timp, corectarea acestora.

Informatia oferita:

•         este exclusiv de natura generala;

•         nu este in mod obligatoriu atotcuprinzatoare, completa, corecta sau actualizata;

•         poate contine legaturi web spre alte site-uri aspura continutului carora INSHR-EW nu detine nici un control si pentru care nu isi asuma nici o responsabilitate.

Un document disponibil pe site nu reproduce in mod obligatoriu textul unui document oficial.

Numai documentele si actele normative publicate pe hartie de catre organele abilitate sunt considerate autentice.

Administratorul nu isi asuma nici o raspundere in cazul in care anumite informatii sunt furnizate cu intarziere, sunt pierdute, sterse sau nu pot fi stocate pe serverele noastre din orice motive.

De asemenea, nu isi asuma nici o raspundere pentru consecintele care pot aparea datorita intarzierii, pierderii sau inexactitatii informatiilor publicate sau existente pe site.

Utilizatorii vor folosi informatiile furnizate in cadrul site-ului pe propria raspundere, iar in cazul unei daune generate de utilizarea serviciilor sau informatiilor furnizate, Utilizatorii accepta ca Administratorul va fi absolvit de orice raspundere.

Notiunea de neangajare a raspunderii nu se rasfrange si asupra obligatiei INSHR-EW de a respecta legislatia in vigoare si nu poate exclude obligatiile INSHR-EW impuse de lege.

 

Reguli generale

Administratorul siteului declara urmatoarele:

•         va depune toate eforturile rezonabile pentru realizarea scopului siteului;

•         va depune toate eforturile (din punct de vedere tehnic sau de alta natura) pentru functionarea in bune conditii a siteului; cu toate acestea, pot exista intreruperi in functionare, sau imposibilitati de accesare de catre Utilizatori, pe o perioada nedeterminata de timp, din orice motive;

•         pe masura aparitiei unor situatii noi de orice natura ce impun acest lucru, Administratorul poate modifica conditiile si termenii de utilizare.

Este posibil ca site-ul web sau informatiile afisate sa contina link-uri catre alte site-uri sau/si formulare sau servicii gestionate de terte persoane.

Prezenta Politica de Confidentialitate nu include practicile si politicile acestor terte persoane relationate cu serviciile sau site-urile respective. INSHR-EW nu controleaza site-urile respective si/sau formularele tertelor persoane. Utilizatorul va trebui sa consulte si sa verifice politica de confidentialitate a acelor site-uri/servicii, inainte de a le accesa sau utiliza.

In general, datele solicitate prin intermediul formularelor disponibile pe site sunt obligatorii si necesare pentru ca utilizatorul sa poata accesa si/sau utiliza serviciile la care se refera formularul in cauza ca de exemplu,  pentru solutionarea  cererilor, petitiilor, sugestiilor si a reclamatiilor, inclusiv prin intermediul unor terte persoane juridice.  Formularul poate indica, dupa caz, doar unele date ca fiind optionale.

In cazul in care nu sunt furnizate toate datele considerate ca obligatorii si necesare, INSHR-EW va putea, in anumite cazuri, sa suspende accesul la utilizarea serviciului in cauza sau sa nu dea curs solicitarii neconforme realizate de catre Utilizator.

Contact

  • Adresa: Bucureşti, Bulevardul Dacia, nr. 89, sector 2, cod postal 020052
  • Telefon/Fax: +40-21-318 09 39
  • E-mail: office@inshr-ew.ro